Proper nutrition is very important in childhood, especially one to three years. Nutrition that is based on scientific principles and taking into account all the body's needs, ensures the health of the baby. Eating is one of the essential and permanent needs of the baby and is the most important factor in survival and life expectancy. Proper nutrition will promote optimal growth and health of the baby. In addition, food provides energy for the body, thereby maintaining tissues health and improving the function of various organs of the body. Due to its many beneficial ingredients in breast milk, it is the best food for babies over 1-year-old. But in some cases, like inadequate mother’s milk, you have to find a replacement. There are two alternatives to this: one, using cow's milk and the other, using an appropriate formula (formula for children over 1-year-old). The consumption of cow's milk by children over of one year may result in inadequate intake of nutrients such as alpha-linolenic acid, iron, copper, vitamin C, vitamin D and zinc. Because the amount of these compounds in cow's milk is lower than the baby's need and does not meet the baby's need for nutrients. While the formula for children over one year contains compounds close to the mother's milk and provides the proper nutrition and growth of the baby.

The main reasons for the inappropriate of cow's milk for feeding children from 1 to 3 years are:

  •  High amount of protein
  •  High amount of casein
  •  High amounts of saturated fatty acids
  •  Minor amounts of essential fatty acids
  •  Minor amounts of minerals iron, zinc and copper
  •  Minor amounts of vitamins C, K, E
  •  Absence of AA and DHA, nucleotides and prebiotics


Soldavini, Jessica. "Krause's Food & The Nutrition Care Process." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 51.10 (2019): 1225.